The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the part of the cell where unfolded proteins are properly folded and then exported into different parts of the cell, or secreted out of the cell, so that they can perform their normal biological functions. When the ER becomes stressed, protein folding is compromised, and cells can become dysfunctional. Apoptosis, also known as Programmed Cell Death, is one of the main side effects of protein misfolding due to ER stress, and several independent peer-reviewed research papers have demonstrated that MANF plays a critical role in reducing protein misfolding and apoptosis. MANF has been shown to be upregulated inside the cell, and subsequently secreted out of the cell, with data demonstrating that MANF ultimately reduces apoptosis in the cells in which it originates, the cells it interacts with once secreted out of the cell, as well as when manufactured MANF is administered to various parts of the body undergoing ER stress. Amarantus is seeking to administer manufactured MANF to areas in the body where ER-stress occurs due to injury or disease, giving the body additional quantities of MANF during times of stress in order to reduce apoptosis and improve cellular function. The Company believes that if cellular function can be improved, overall system recovery is likely in many therapeutic indications. ER-stress and protein misfolding appear to be a key component of Parkinson's disease biology. Amarantus' Chief Scientist originally discovered MANF, and the Company was awarded composition of matter patents on MANF in Europe in 2010 and in the United States in 2011. The Company also recently won a court challenge to its composition of matter patents in Europe. The Company also owns worldwide patent applications covering various methods of using MANF as it relates to neurological conditions.