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The Blood-Brain Barrier and Essential Oils

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Unread 08-18-2008, 07:42 AM   #1
lou_lou
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Default The Blood-Brain Barrier and Essential Oils




THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
By David Stewart, Ph.D.,R.A.

It was thought for years that the interstitial tissues of the brain served as a barrier to keep damaging substances from reaching the neurons of the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid. Instead of a barrier, it would be more accurate to consider it as a sieve or filter through which only molecules of a certain size or smaller can pass.

Most of the molecules of the substances used in chemotherapy are too large to pass through the blood-brain filter, which is why doctors say that chemotherapy doesn’t work on brain cancer. Some of the smaller molecules get through, but not the whole suite of drugs intended.

Doctors don’t know for sure, but it seems that in order to cross the blood-brain barrier, only molecules less than 800-1000 atomic mass units (amu) in molecular weight can get through. Lipid solubility seems to be another factor which facilitates passing through the blood-brain barrier. Water soluble molecules don’t usually penetrate into brain tissue, even when very small. The molecules of essential oils are all not only small, but lipid soluble as well.

In fact, when it comes to essential oils, small molecules (less than 500 amu) are what they are made of. That is why they are aromatic. The only way for something to be aromatic is for the molecules to be so small that they readily leap into the air so they can enter our noses and be detected as odor and smell.





http://aromatherapy4u.wordpress.com/...ssential-oils/
__________________
with much love,
lou_lou

http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5461/7...41f02d40_m.jpg
in search of a cure for parkinsons disease by mademoiselle lavender ~, on Flickr
pd documentary - part 2 and 3
http://youtu.be/E4JqqPXegfo
http://youtu.be/yidIwF5EghM

Resolve to be tender with the young, compassionate with the aged, sympathetic with the striving, and tolerant with the weak and the wrong. Sometime in your life you will have been all of these.

Last edited by lou_lou; 08-18-2008 at 07:57 AM.
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Unread 08-19-2008, 02:20 AM   #2
Ronhutton
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Hi Tena,
Thanks for this. I never thought of the BBB as a sieve rather than a barrier, but that is basically what it really is. You can bypass the BBB via a channel in your nose, but generally you lose your sense of smell up to 4 years before showing PD symptoms
Ron



Quote:
Originally Posted by CTenaLouise View Post



THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
By David Stewart, Ph.D.,R.A.

It was thought for years that the interstitial tissues of the brain served as a barrier to keep damaging substances from reaching the neurons of the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid. Instead of a barrier, it would be more accurate to consider it as a sieve or filter through which only molecules of a certain size or smaller can pass.

Most of the molecules of the substances used in chemotherapy are too large to pass through the blood-brain filter, which is why doctors say that chemotherapy doesn’t work on brain cancer. Some of the smaller molecules get through, but not the whole suite of drugs intended.

Doctors don’t know for sure, but it seems that in order to cross the blood-brain barrier, only molecules less than 800-1000 atomic mass units (amu) in molecular weight can get through. Lipid solubility seems to be another factor which facilitates passing through the blood-brain barrier. Water soluble molecules don’t usually penetrate into brain tissue, even when very small. The molecules of essential oils are all not only small, but lipid soluble as well.

In fact, when it comes to essential oils, small molecules (less than 500 amu) are what they are made of. That is why they are aromatic. The only way for something to be aromatic is for the molecules to be so small that they readily leap into the air so they can enter our noses and be detected as odor and smell.





http://aromatherapy4u.wordpress.com/...ssential-oils/
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Unread 08-19-2008, 03:35 PM   #3
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Arrow I never lost mine?

dear RonHutton,
I have lost many things but not the sense of smell or taste...
which go hand in hand...

the sense of smell is returned if you take zinc...
usually a sign of zinc deficiency...also B complex -ie: B12 deficiency -

do you still have moons on your fingernails - if you do not this is how they know at a great doctors if you are B12 deficient,


____________
Food and Nutrition: zinc
An essential mineral which forms the prosthetic group of a large number of enzymes, and also the receptor proteins for steroid and thyroid hormones and vitamin A and vitamin D. Deficiency results in hypogonadism and delayed puberty, small stature, and mild anaemia; it occurs mainly in subtropical regions where a great deal of zinc is lost in sweat, and the diet is largely based on unleavened wholemeal bread, in which much of the zinc is unavailable because of the high content of phytate.

Meat, fish (especially shellfish), legumes, and (leavened) wholegrain cereals are rich sources. Synergistic zinc is a trade name for zinc supplement that also contains copper and vitamin A, which are claimed to aid its absorption.
~~~~

Alternative Medicine Encyclopedia: Zinc
Description

Zinc is a mineral that is essential for a healthy immune system, production of certain hormones, wound healing, bone formation, and clear skin. It is required in very small amounts, and is thus known as a trace mineral. Despite the low requirement, zinc is found in nearly every cell of the body and is a key to the proper function of more than 300 enzymes, including superoxide dismutase. Normal growth and development cannot occur without it.

General Use

The U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc is 5 milligrams (mg) for children under one year of age, 10 mg for children aged one to 10 years old, 15 mg for males 11 years or older, 12 mg for females 11 years or older, 15 mg for women who are pregnant, and 16-19 mg for women who are lactating.

Zinc has become a popular remedy for the common cold. Evidence shows that it is unlikely to prevent upper respiratory infections, but beginning a supplement promptly when symptoms occur can significantly shorten the duration of the illness. The only form of zinc proven effective for this purpose is the zinc gluconate or zinc acetate lozenge. Formulations of 13-23 mg or more appear to be most effective, and need to be dissolved in the mouth in order to exert antiviral properties. Swallowing or sucking on oral zinc tablets will not work. The lozenges can be used every two hours for up to a week or two at most.

People who are deficient in zinc are prone to getting more frequent and longer lasting infections of various types. Zinc acts as an immune booster, in part due to stimulation of the thymus gland. This gland tends to shrink with age, and consequently produces less of the hormones that boost the production of infection-fighting white blood cells. Supplemental zinc, at one to two times RDA amounts, can reverse this tendency and improve immune function.

In another immune stimulant capacity, zinc can offer some relief from chronic infections with Candida albicans, or yeast. Most women will experience a vaginal yeast infection at some time, and are particularly prone to them during the childbearing years. Some individuals appear to be more susceptible than others. One study showed yeast-fighting benefits for zinc even for those who were not deficient in the mineral to begin with. Other supplements that will complement zinc in combating yeast problems are vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Another measure that can help to limit problems with Candida is eating yogurt, which is an excellent source of Lactobacillus, a friendly bacteria that competes with yeast. Limiting sweets in the diet and eating garlic or odor-free garlic supplements may also prove helpful.

People who are going to have surgery are well advised to make sure they are getting the RDA of zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C in order to optimize wound healing. A deficiency of any of these nutrients can significantly lengthen the time it takes to heal. Adequate levels of these vitamins and minerals for at least a few weeks before and after surgery can speed healing. The same nutrients are important to minimize the healing time of bedsores, burns, and other skin lesions.

There are two male health problems that can potentially benefit from zinc supplementation. Testosterone is one of the hormones that requires zinc for production. Men with infertility as a result of low testosterone levels may experience improvement from taking a zinc supplement. Another common condition that zinc can be helpful for is benign prostatic hypertrophy, a common cause of abnormally frequent urination in older men. Taking an extra 50 mg a day for three to six months offers symptomatic relief for some men.

Teenagers are often low in zinc, and also tend to experience more acne than the general population. The doses used in studies have been in the high range, requiring medical supervision, but increasing dietary zinc or taking a modest supplement in order to get the RDA amount is low risk and may prove helpful for those suffering from acne. People should consult a knowledgeable health care provider before taking large doses of any supplement.

There is some evidence that zinc supplementation may slightly relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, but the studies are not yet conclusive. It's possible that those who initially had low zinc levels benefited the most.

In 2002, new research showed certain concentrations of zinc improved the effect of a therapy called interferon for some patients with chronic hepatitis C. Although the trial was preliminary, it showed promise for further research into zinc's effects in enhancing interferon therapy.

Zinc is sometimes promoted as an aid for memory. This may be true to the extent that vitamin B6 and neurotransmitters are not properly utilized without it. However, in the case of people with Alzheimer's disease, zinc can cause more harm than good. Some experiments indicate that zinc actually decreases intellectual function of people with this disease. Under these circumstances, it is probably best to stick to the RDA of 15 mg as a maximum daily amount of zinc.

The frequency of sickle-cell crisis in patients with sickle-cell anemia may be decreased by zinc supplementation. The decrease was significant in one study, although the severity of the attacks that occurred was not affected. Use of zinc supplementation or other treatment for sicklecell anemia, a serious condition, should not be undertaken without the supervision of a health care provider.

Both the retina of the eye, and the cochlea in the inner ear contain large amounts of zinc, which they appear to need in order to function properly. Dr. George E. Shambaugh, Jr., M.D., is a professor emeritus of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery at Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago. In Prevention's Healing with Vitamins, he "estimates that about 25% of the people he sees with severe tinnitus are zinc-deficient." He adds that they sometimes have other symptoms of zinc deficiency. Large doses may be used in order to provide relief for this problem. Medical supervision and monitoring are necessary to undertake this course of treatment.

Topical zinc can be useful for some conditions, including cold sores. It is also available in a combination formula with the antibiotic erythromycin for the treatment of acne. Zinc oxide is a commonly used ingredient in the strongest sun block preparations and some creams for the treatment of diaper rash and superficial skin injuries. Men can use topical zinc oxide to speed the healing of genital herpes lesions, but it is too drying for women to use in the vaginal area.

There is still not enough information on some of the claims that are made for zinc. A few that may have merit are the prevention or slowing of macular degeneration, and relieving psoriasis. One should consult a health care provider for these uses.

Deficiency

It is not uncommon to have mild to moderately low levels of zinc, although serious deficiency is rare. Symptoms can include an increased susceptibility to infection, rashes, hair loss, poor growth in children, delayed healing of wounds, rashes, acne, male infertility, poor appetite, decreased sense of taste and smell, and possible swelling of the mouth, tongue, and eyelids.

http://www.answers.com/topic/zinc
__________________
with much love,
lou_lou

http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5461/7...41f02d40_m.jpg
in search of a cure for parkinsons disease by mademoiselle lavender ~, on Flickr
pd documentary - part 2 and 3
http://youtu.be/E4JqqPXegfo
http://youtu.be/yidIwF5EghM

Resolve to be tender with the young, compassionate with the aged, sympathetic with the striving, and tolerant with the weak and the wrong. Sometime in your life you will have been all of these.
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Unread 08-20-2008, 01:21 AM   #4
Ronhutton
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Default Zinc

Hi Tena,
I have been taking 15mg of zinc per day now for well over a year. However, my sense of smell has not returned. I don't take B12 though.
My taste is OK, even though as you say, it goes hand in hand with sense of smell. I can enjoy many different foods and appreciate the different tastes. I guess it is the usual explanation that we are all different.
Not sure what you mean about "moons on my fingernails".
Best wishes
Ron
PS Don't forget that zinc also protects against dysfunction of the BBB
http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/ss03/zinc.html

Although the antioxidant properties of zinc were first demonstrated in vitro, there is also clear evidence that zinc functions as an antioxidant in the body. One area of growing interest is the role of zinc as an antioxidant in the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the brain. Compared to other soft tissues, the human brain contains significant amounts of zinc. Among the essential trace elements, zinc is second only to iron in total concentration in the brain. Zinc deficiency has been proposed to lead to nervous system disorders, including mental disturbances, loss of sensory acuity, and impaired cognitive and psychological function. Notably, oxidative stress is associated with the development and progression of several different neuropathologies, including Alzheimer’s disease, ALS, and Parkinson’s disease.

We recently examined the role of zinc in maintaining the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB), which is the highly specialized blood vessel system of the CNS that serves to protect the brain by excluding toxic agents and other foreign compounds. Alterations or dysfunction of the BBB have been observed in many brain disorders. Free radicals may play an important role in damaging the BBB because it is especially sensitive to oxidative damage. This vulnerability may be due to the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the BBB membrane—fatty acids that are very susceptible to free radical attack—as well as the relatively low antioxidant capacity of the BBB. Oxidation of the membrane drastically compromises its barrier properties and may lead to subsequent brain tissue damage, resulting in a host of pathologies.

Our investigations have focused on the antioxidant function of zinc that may protect the BBB against oxidative damage. Using magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, we have demonstrated that zinc deficiency in rats dramatically increases the permeability, or leakiness, of the BBB. Additionally, we have observed that when zinc deficiency is accompanied by oxidative stress, as might occur during a bacterial or viral infection, BBB permeability increases dramatically. These observations have led us to hypothesize that under normal conditions, zinc protects the BBB against oxidative stress through its antioxidant properties and in so doing, helps to maintain homeostasis within the brain and prevent the development of neurological disorders.

In our initial work we examined the consequences of the loss of BBB integrity during zinc deficiency. First, we noted significantly increased water content, or edema, of the brain as a result of zinc deficiency. Second, we observed increased protein oxidation within the brain. And third, we documented significant changes in brain energy metabolism. These observations led us to propose that these events may be pivotal in the development and pathogenesis of many brain disorders, and our laboratory will continue to define the important roles of zinc in disease prevention.



Quote:
Originally Posted by CTenaLouise View Post
dear RonHutton,
I have lost many things but not the sense of smell or taste...
which go hand in hand...

the sense of smell is returned if you take zinc...
usually a sign of zinc deficiency...also B complex -ie: B12 deficiency -

do you still have moons on your fingernails - if you do not this is how they know at a great doctors if you are B12 deficient,


____________
Food and Nutrition: zinc
An essential mineral which forms the prosthetic group of a large number of enzymes, and also the receptor proteins for steroid and thyroid hormones and vitamin A and vitamin D. Deficiency results in hypogonadism and delayed puberty, small stature, and mild anaemia; it occurs mainly in subtropical regions where a great deal of zinc is lost in sweat, and the diet is largely based on unleavened wholemeal bread, in which much of the zinc is unavailable because of the high content of phytate.

Meat, fish (especially shellfish), legumes, and (leavened) wholegrain cereals are rich sources. Synergistic zinc is a trade name for zinc supplement that also contains copper and vitamin A, which are claimed to aid its absorption.
~~~~

Alternative Medicine Encyclopedia: Zinc
Description

Zinc is a mineral that is essential for a healthy immune system, production of certain hormones, wound healing, bone formation, and clear skin. It is required in very small amounts, and is thus known as a trace mineral. Despite the low requirement, zinc is found in nearly every cell of the body and is a key to the proper function of more than 300 enzymes, including superoxide dismutase. Normal growth and development cannot occur without it.

General Use

The U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for zinc is 5 milligrams (mg) for children under one year of age, 10 mg for children aged one to 10 years old, 15 mg for males 11 years or older, 12 mg for females 11 years or older, 15 mg for women who are pregnant, and 16-19 mg for women who are lactating.

Zinc has become a popular remedy for the common cold. Evidence shows that it is unlikely to prevent upper respiratory infections, but beginning a supplement promptly when symptoms occur can significantly shorten the duration of the illness. The only form of zinc proven effective for this purpose is the zinc gluconate or zinc acetate lozenge. Formulations of 13-23 mg or more appear to be most effective, and need to be dissolved in the mouth in order to exert antiviral properties. Swallowing or sucking on oral zinc tablets will not work. The lozenges can be used every two hours for up to a week or two at most.

People who are deficient in zinc are prone to getting more frequent and longer lasting infections of various types. Zinc acts as an immune booster, in part due to stimulation of the thymus gland. This gland tends to shrink with age, and consequently produces less of the hormones that boost the production of infection-fighting white blood cells. Supplemental zinc, at one to two times RDA amounts, can reverse this tendency and improve immune function.

In another immune stimulant capacity, zinc can offer some relief from chronic infections with Candida albicans, or yeast. Most women will experience a vaginal yeast infection at some time, and are particularly prone to them during the childbearing years. Some individuals appear to be more susceptible than others. One study showed yeast-fighting benefits for zinc even for those who were not deficient in the mineral to begin with. Other supplements that will complement zinc in combating yeast problems are vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Another measure that can help to limit problems with Candida is eating yogurt, which is an excellent source of Lactobacillus, a friendly bacteria that competes with yeast. Limiting sweets in the diet and eating garlic or odor-free garlic supplements may also prove helpful.

People who are going to have surgery are well advised to make sure they are getting the RDA of zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C in order to optimize wound healing. A deficiency of any of these nutrients can significantly lengthen the time it takes to heal. Adequate levels of these vitamins and minerals for at least a few weeks before and after surgery can speed healing. The same nutrients are important to minimize the healing time of bedsores, burns, and other skin lesions.

There are two male health problems that can potentially benefit from zinc supplementation. Testosterone is one of the hormones that requires zinc for production. Men with infertility as a result of low testosterone levels may experience improvement from taking a zinc supplement. Another common condition that zinc can be helpful for is benign prostatic hypertrophy, a common cause of abnormally frequent urination in older men. Taking an extra 50 mg a day for three to six months offers symptomatic relief for some men.

Teenagers are often low in zinc, and also tend to experience more acne than the general population. The doses used in studies have been in the high range, requiring medical supervision, but increasing dietary zinc or taking a modest supplement in order to get the RDA amount is low risk and may prove helpful for those suffering from acne. People should consult a knowledgeable health care provider before taking large doses of any supplement.

There is some evidence that zinc supplementation may slightly relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, but the studies are not yet conclusive. It's possible that those who initially had low zinc levels benefited the most.

In 2002, new research showed certain concentrations of zinc improved the effect of a therapy called interferon for some patients with chronic hepatitis C. Although the trial was preliminary, it showed promise for further research into zinc's effects in enhancing interferon therapy.

Zinc is sometimes promoted as an aid for memory. This may be true to the extent that vitamin B6 and neurotransmitters are not properly utilized without it. However, in the case of people with Alzheimer's disease, zinc can cause more harm than good. Some experiments indicate that zinc actually decreases intellectual function of people with this disease. Under these circumstances, it is probably best to stick to the RDA of 15 mg as a maximum daily amount of zinc.

The frequency of sickle-cell crisis in patients with sickle-cell anemia may be decreased by zinc supplementation. The decrease was significant in one study, although the severity of the attacks that occurred was not affected. Use of zinc supplementation or other treatment for sicklecell anemia, a serious condition, should not be undertaken without the supervision of a health care provider.

Both the retina of the eye, and the cochlea in the inner ear contain large amounts of zinc, which they appear to need in order to function properly. Dr. George E. Shambaugh, Jr., M.D., is a professor emeritus of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery at Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago. In Prevention's Healing with Vitamins, he "estimates that about 25% of the people he sees with severe tinnitus are zinc-deficient." He adds that they sometimes have other symptoms of zinc deficiency. Large doses may be used in order to provide relief for this problem. Medical supervision and monitoring are necessary to undertake this course of treatment.

Topical zinc can be useful for some conditions, including cold sores. It is also available in a combination formula with the antibiotic erythromycin for the treatment of acne. Zinc oxide is a commonly used ingredient in the strongest sun block preparations and some creams for the treatment of diaper rash and superficial skin injuries. Men can use topical zinc oxide to speed the healing of genital herpes lesions, but it is too drying for women to use in the vaginal area.

There is still not enough information on some of the claims that are made for zinc. A few that may have merit are the prevention or slowing of macular degeneration, and relieving psoriasis. One should consult a health care provider for these uses.

Deficiency

It is not uncommon to have mild to moderately low levels of zinc, although serious deficiency is rare. Symptoms can include an increased susceptibility to infection, rashes, hair loss, poor growth in children, delayed healing of wounds, rashes, acne, male infertility, poor appetite, decreased sense of taste and smell, and possible swelling of the mouth, tongue, and eyelids.

http://www.answers.com/topic/zinc
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Born 1936
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Unread 08-20-2008, 10:24 AM   #5
lou_lou
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Arrow disorders that show up in the fingernails -WebMD

What Your Nails Say About Your Health
http://www.webmd.com/skin-beauty/gui...ut-your-health

Nail color and texture can reflect a wide range of medical conditions.

WebMD FeatureTake a good look at your fingernails and you may notice subtle variations in the texture or color - a touch of white here, a rosy tinge there, perhaps some rippling or bumps in the surface. These imperfections may not look like much to you, but to the trained eye they can provide valuable clues about your overall health.

"Just like the eyes are the window to the soul, so are the nails," says Tamara Lior, MD, a dermatologist with Cleveland Clinic Florida. Lior says she once convinced a patient to have his lungs checked after noticing a bluish tint to his nails, a sign that he wasn't getting enough oxygen. Sure enough, he had fluid in his lungs.

Warning signs for many other conditions, from hepatitis to heart disease, may also appear in the nails, according to Joshua Fox, MD, director of Advanced Dermatology and a spokesman for the American Academy of Dermatology. "Changes in the nails can be a sign of a local disease like a fungus infection or a sign of a systemic disease like lupus or anemia," Fox tells WebMD.

He says he sometimes tries to guess if a person has anemia by looking at his or her nails. He explains that pale, whitish nail beds may indicate a low red blood cell count consistent with anemia.

An iron deficiency can cause the nail bed to be thin and concave and have raised ridges.

While most of Fox's patients don't come in to report nail problems, he often checks their nails anyway. "The nails offer many little clues to what's going on inside you. Lupus patients get quirky, angular blood vessels in their nail folds. Psoriasis starts in the nails up to 10% of the time" and causes splitting and pitting of the nail bed.

Heart disease can turn the nail beds red. Obsessive-compulsive disorder can show up in the nails through persistent nail-biting or picking, Fox says.

Even common disorders like thyroid disease can cause abnormities in the nail beds, producing dry, brittle nails that crack and split easily.

Finally, ask your doctor to take a look at your nails during your next checkup. Fox says this is becoming more routine "because the nails offer such a unique window into the health of our bodies."


He lists the following 10 examples of nail changes that could indicate a serious medical condition.
__________________
with much love,
lou_lou

http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5461/7...41f02d40_m.jpg
in search of a cure for parkinsons disease by mademoiselle lavender ~, on Flickr
pd documentary - part 2 and 3
http://youtu.be/E4JqqPXegfo
http://youtu.be/yidIwF5EghM

Resolve to be tender with the young, compassionate with the aged, sympathetic with the striving, and tolerant with the weak and the wrong. Sometime in your life you will have been all of these.
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